Late acknowledgement of a late acknowledgement

In last Steve Denning’s article on Forbes titled “Can The 21st Century Corporation Operate Without Agile?” we read:

The new industrial revolution may be enabled by technology, but it is not being driven by it.


Trying to exploit digital technology or the Internet with the management practices of hierarchical bureaucracy that is pervasive in big corporations today is like driving a horse and buggy on the freeway. To get beyond this horse-and-buggy management, and into something more relevant, managers need Agile.


These are however the results of Agile management, not the drivers of the new industrial revolution.


The new mindset begins with a focus on continuous innovation and the future. It believes in banking, not necessarily banks. It believes in accommodation, not necessarily hotels. It believes in transport, not necessarily cars. It believes in health, not necessarily hospitals. It believes in education, not necessarily schools.


What is lacking is a recognition that the Agile way of running an organization constitutes, not just a random potpourri of management practices being driven by technology. It’s a coherent self-reinforcing system of leadership and management thinking that is driving the technology for the benefit of the customer.

It has been already years since the world of mainstream management realized agile is not just a tree-hugging bandwagon – assuming we don’t really need to hug more trees to solve a bunch of real problems – and this blogpost doesn’t have the aim to show you anything unexpected. But still I have been beating the agile track since 2003 and it is so rewarding to see Forbes acknowledge the value of a path that, well… was mine too.

Ad maiora.

How loss aversion killed the turkey

Do you create new products and services under conditions of extreme uncertainty? Do you think any contract will make the project more likely to succeed? Are you even an employee? C’mon, don’t be a turkey! Yes, a turkey!

I had this blogpost in progress for a long time. A few weeks ago a tweet by Nassim Taleb – along with the essay attached – made me think of it and so… here it is.

You shouldn’t feel too safe

You know how turkeys’ life is in the USA: they get fed for months, they get every attention throughout the summer. They feel care, trust and don’t even suspect what is going to happen by the end of October! Their expectation about a life of luxury and obsequious homages gets ruined by an unexpected event: Thanksgiving Day. And the hand that fed them now kills them. That may sound sad for humans, especially for vegans, but sure that sounds tragic to the turkeys. What’s even worse is that they get no clue about their own destiny by the evidences that were available throughout their life: the story told by the past has nothing to do with how the story ends. Unknown unknowns kick in.

Would you really trust someone feeding you for free everyday of your life not killing you in the end? I wouldn’t! As humans, though, we don’t usually perform better than turkeys! Despite our intellectual advantage over turkeys, we still tend to overestimate losses while underestimating potential gains of the same value. That is called loss aversion bias. As a species, humans have developed this bias to better cope with an environment characterized by scarcity. It must have been very hard for our ancestors to get their goods, so preserving them must have been more valuable than the willingness of accepting the risk of getting new goods.

That loss aversion, sometimes, makes us stick to a warm safety feeling instead of exploring new chances for better gains.

Valueable value

Turkeys put aside for a moment, now please consider lean thinking and lean management and their very aggressive definition of value. According to those mindsets value is what is worth the customer’s money or the user’s time. All the rest is waste. If you start thinking out of the box, wondering what elements of your job truly add value, the least that you can find out is that many of them just don’t. Are you moving partial deliveries around? Are you reprocessing deliverables to correct defects? Are you waiting for a contract to be signed off? That’s waste, not value. Simple as that.

I decided to write this post when I asked this very easy question to the people I am in touch with on Twitter and Facebook:

Do you think a contract can raise your chances to succeed in a project?

For the sake of simplicity I just meant a project “successful” if all the stakeholders, the users, the sponsors and – last but not least – the suppliers are happy for what they get in exchange for they give. It doesn’t necessarily relate to deadlines, but it could. It doesn’t necessarily relates to clarity of requirements, but it could. It doesn’t necessarily relates to money, but well… usually it does! 🙂 All in all, I don’t even mind having a perfect definition of a “successful project” here. Whatever your definition, I was asking myself if a contract may add value to the development of a product or a service as much as the time we spend every time in thinking, writing, agreeing on, signing and sueing around it.

I received a lot of replies.

Don’t be a turkey!

Not surprisingly, most of the people blatantly ignored the true question, replying about the safety feeling provided by a contract.

It can raise my chance to get a meal.

was the first open-hearted and sincere reply. To tell the truth, though, my question was about how a contract may help making things go better and not how it may undoubtely help in case everything goes so wrong that we need to call the lawyer. Still the success of a start-up has nothing to do with how we’ll manage its final failure.

Back to the definition of value used in lean thinking, if we were in the F1 racing business, it’s as if we cared more about the pilot’s helmet than the engine’s power. The story of car racing shows that safety is a compliancy issue, not a performance one: no car racing team ever won a race because of the helmet. Also, and that is very important, when working for a start-up we aren’t likely risking our life but just a finite amount of time/money.

“That amount of time/money is what I live by!” I hear you say. Sure! You are right! But only a turkey would go on working until the day of its death with no real feedback about the true quality of its working relationship. And usual contracts provide no feedback at all! They just help you minimizing damage when you are already in a mess or at best when more or less expected problems start popping out of the horizon! A contract provides no defence against unknown unknows! As Francesco perfectly stated replying to my question:

A contract may save you […] if the projects fails the way you had planned.

Among the best replies, Memi’s one pointed out how safety creates room in his mind to focus on his customers and their projects, thus – in a sense – creating indirect value. I may agree with him, since knowledge work is a tricky one, depending on many soft variables. But still this is indirect value. We are still assuming here that the helmet will primarily make the racer win, by making him feel safe, while drivi… well… I’d invest more in the engine, you know?

There is more. If we accept that we need safety to create an environment in which we can foster value creation, then why don’t we find better ways to provide that safety both to ourselves and our customers instead of just a piece of paper?

How can a contract reduce the need for estimates?

You are going to meet a customer tomorrow. You will discuss about developing a new product. You know she will ask for a bunch of features, a deadline and a budget. She will ask for estimates.

You have developed products since many years ago, maybe 5, maybe 10, maybe even 15 or 20 years ago! Through all this time you have learned many things and one keeps on popping up into your mind every time you are preparing a meeting like this: estimates are a loss of time.

  • You know they won’t add any value up, because no product will ever generate value out of an estimation rather than out of the best set of features and an amazing user experience.
  • You know you will have to spend precious hours – usually days – to complete a full estimation round, because details will keep on emerging and it will be hard to know which ones are worth the attention they ask for and which are not.
  • You know you could generate more money if you could spend those days working on the product itself, to get to deep insights and learning as fast as you can.
  • You know you could spend those days working for other costumers, which are now foregone opportunities.
  • You know the request for estimates will lead to positional bargaining. Trust and chances of an healthy collaboration will fade away while the customer defends her capital of money – trying to depreciate the value of your effort – and you defend your capital of skills – trying to raise the estimate with a safety buffer.
  • Last but not least, reality will just… change, invalidating your estimation.

All in all, there is no other chance with fixed price or time & materials contracts: both parties have to agree on an estimate to fill in the gap of trust existing at the beginning of a collaboration. In the traditional context, contracts relying on estimates are a replacement for true trust.

It would be lovely if we could build a climate of collaboration and test it very fast. It would be even better to have some value – some real value – delivered to the customer in the same amount of time we would burn to estimate and quote the whole project. It would be perfect to have the customer say: “hey, you delivered more value than I expected and I can pay for it after this trial”.

Consider the typical conversation:

  • Customer: “Hello, I need this”.
  • Vendor: “What do you mean with ‘this’?”
  • C: “I mean this, this and that”.
  • V: “Uhm… we need to talk about the details for the next 5 days.”

Now imagine if we could turn that conversation into the following one:

  • Customer: “Hello, I need this”.
  • Vendor: “What do you mean with ‘this’?”
  • C: “I mean this, this and that”.
  • V: “Uhm… let’s talk one hour now. I will build something to start validating your needs and be back to you in 5 days.”

We could then start working for no money for a few days, deliver something and then check with the customer if our delivery is truly valuable. If it was, we could be paid and just… restart again: discuss needs, build something, validate the assumptions, get paid.

In high volatility scenarios this would allow for knowledge to build up, with a great momentum and minimum commitment for both customer and supplier. This would allow to allocate the budget

  • only on the next learning step
  • only a posteriori, having already learned something

The customer’s only rule would then be: if I only pay for the (n-1)th step, it is perfectly fine to wait for the n-th step to be completed for free!

Should we get rid of planning then? Well… maybe not, maybe yes. It depends on the value it delivers. As long as it helps the team anticipating known unknowns thus preparing the team to react to unknown unknowns, it may keep some value. Sure though we could ease the dependency of any collaboration from any upfront estimation. If we became able to release value frequently then we could experiment and learn with some tactic to get rid of the need for estimations.

Extreme Contracts were also meant for this. Check them out.